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Kennedy mörder

Kennedy Mörder Salzburg Cancer Research Institute

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Kennedy Mörder - CCCIT | Center for Clinical Cancer and Immunology Trials

View this publication in the PUBMED database An international, multicenter, prospective, observational study of neutropenia in patients being treated with lenalidomide? The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Ie. Epub May 9. Salzburg Cancer Research Institute. View this publication in the PUBMED database Fludarabine modulates composition and function of the T cell pool read article patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. View this publication in the PUBMED database Red blood cell read more in patients with myeloid neoplasms treated with azacitidine - Click retrospective single center experience. View see more publication in the Source database Circulating B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells display impaired migration to lymph nodes and bone marrow. Epub Kennedy mörder 6. View this publication in the Here database Adjuvant sequencing of continue reading and anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen alone in postmenopausal women with low proliferating breast cancer. München thalia Nov View this publication in the PUBMED database Evidence for the conversion of docetaxel into 7'-epidocetaxel in patients receiving Taxotere-based conventional chemotherapy. kennedy mörder Retrieved October 24, In Januaryprosecutors asked the Connecticut Supreme Court to revoke Skakel's just click for source and to return him to prison to resume serving his sentence. Banister drew. A former roommate of Oswald, James Botelho who would later become a California judge stated in an interview with Lissa schwerm Lane that he believed Oswald was involved in an intelligence assignment in Jones alex, [] [] although Botelho did not mention this suspicion in his testimony to the Warren Commission years earlier. Retrieved August 16, Archived from the original on April click at this page, Some assassination researchers assert that witness statements indicating a conspiracy were ignored by the Warren Commission. In her book From Love Field: Our Final Hours read article, kennedy mörder said she believed that her husband was hit by a bullet separate from the two that hit Kennedy. O'Connor said that President Kennedy's body arrived at Bethesda inside a body bag in "a cheap, shipping-type toby stephens casket", which differed from the description of the ornamental bronze casket and sheet that the body had been wrapped in at Parkland Hospital. Archived from the original on September 30,

Rowley , each individually reached the same conclusion on the basis of information available to them. The HSCA concluded that at least four shots were fired with a "high probability" that two gunmen fired at the President, and that a conspiracy was probable.

Most of the documents under Section 5 of the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of were released on October 26, , while the remaining documents that are still classified will be analyzed for redactions.

According to author John C. McAdams , "[t]he greatest and grandest of all conspiracy theories is the Kennedy assassination conspiracy theory.

Author David Krajicek describes Kennedy assassination enthusiasts as people belonging to " conspiracy theorists " on one side and " debunkers " on the other.

Public opinion polls have consistently shown that most Americans believe there was a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy.

These same polls also show no agreement on who else may have been involved in the shooting. Katzenbach , is having something issued so we can convince the public that Oswald is the real assassin.

Edgar Hoover's preliminary analysis of the assassination included the following:. The Central Intelligence Agency advised that on October 1st, , an extremely sensitive source had reported that an individual identifying himself as Lee Oswald contacted the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City inquiring as to any messages.

Special agents of this Bureau, who have conversed with Oswald in Dallas, Texas, have observed photographs of the individual referred to above and have listened to a recording of his voice.

These special agents are of the opinion that the referred-to individual was not Lee Harvey Oswald. We have up here the tape and the photograph of the man at the Soviet Embassy, using Oswald's name.

That picture and the tape do not correspond to this man's voice, nor to his appearance. In other words, it appears that there was a second person who was at the Soviet Embassy.

Johnson relayed his concern to both Chief Justice Earl Warren and Senator Richard Russell , telling them that they could "serve America" by joining the commission Johnson had established to investigate the assassination, which would later become known unofficially as the Warren Commission.

Kurtz , [58] Gerald D. McKnight, [59] Anthony Summers , [60] and Harold Weisberg , [61] have referred to what they see as inconsistencies, oversights, exclusions of evidence, errors, changing stories, or changes made to witness testimony in the official Warren Commission investigation, which they say could suggest a cover-up.

Michael Benson wrote that the Warren Commission received only information supplied to it by the FBI, and that its purpose was to rubber stamp the lone gunman theory.

United States Senator and U. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence member Richard Schweiker told author Anthony Summers in that he "believe[d] that the Warren Commission was set up at the time to feed pabulum to the American public for reasons not yet known, and that one of the biggest cover-ups in the history of our country occurred at that time".

James H. Tunheim , who stated that no " smoking guns " indicating a conspiracy or cover-up were discovered during their efforts to declassify documents related to the assassination in the early s.

Fetzer identified 16 "smoking guns" that he claims prove the official narrative is impossible, and therefore a conspiracy and cover-up occurred.

He also claims that evidence released by the ARRB substantiates these concerns. In , Roscoe Drummond voiced skepticism about a cover-up in his syndicated column, saying, "If there were a conspiracy to cover up the truth about the assassination, it would have to involve the Chief Justice, the Republican, Democratic, and non-party members of the commission, the FBI, the CIA, the Secret Service, the distinguished doctors of the armed services — and the White House — a conspiracy so multiple and complex that it would have fallen of its own weight.

Richard Buyer wrote that many witnesses whose statements pointed to a conspiracy were either ignored or intimidated by the Warren Commission.

A later book by Sloan, entitled JFK: Breaking the Silence , quotes several assassination eyewitnesses as saying that Warren Commission interviewers repeatedly cut short or stifled any comments casting doubt on the conclusion that Oswald had acted alone.

In his book Crossfire , Jim Marrs gives accounts of several people who said they were intimidated by either FBI agents or anonymous individuals into altering or suppressing what they knew regarding the assassination.

Allegations of mysterious or suspicious deaths of witnesses connected with the Kennedy assassination originated with Penn Jones, Jr.

He noted that the deaths were grouped around investigations conducted by the Warren Commission, New Orleans D.

Kennedy to journalist Dorothy Kilgallen. During and , she wrote several newspaper articles on the subject. Whether Kilgallen and Ruby had a second conversation in a private room in the Dallas County, Texas courthouse several days later has been disputed.

If they did, she never wrote about it for publication. Her death was determined to have been caused by a fatal combination of alcohol and barbiturates.

State Hospital physician Dr. Victor Weiss later told a House Select Committee investigator that on November 25 — three days after the assassination — one of his fellow physicians told him that Cheramie had "stated before the assassination that President Kennedy was going to be killed".

Weiss further reported that Cheramie told him after the assassination that she had worked for Jack Ruby and that her knowledge of the assassination originated from "word in the underworld".

Fruge contacted Dallas Police Captain Will Fritz regarding what he had learned from Cheramie, but Fritz told him he "wasn't interested".

Milteer was secretly tape-recorded thirteen days before the assassination telling Miami police informant William Somersett that the murder of Kennedy was "in the working".

Milteer died in when a heater exploded in his house. The House Select Committee on Assassinations investigated the allegation "that a statistically improbable number of individuals with some direct or peripheral association with the Kennedy assassination died as a result of that assassination, thereby raising the specter of conspiracy".

Author Gerald Posner said that Marrs's list was taken from the group of about 10, people connected even in the most tenuous way to the assassination, including people identified in the official investigations, as well as the research of conspiracy theorists.

Posner also said that it would be surprising if a hundred people out of ten thousand did not die in "unnatural ways".

He noted that over half of the people on Marrs's list did not die mysteriously, but of natural causes, such as Secret Service agent Roy Kellerman , who died of heart failure at age 69 in , long after the Kennedy assassination, but is on Marrs's list as someone whose cause of death is "unknown".

Posner also pointed out that many prominent witnesses and conspiracy researchers continue to live long lives. Many of those who believe in a JFK assassination conspiracy also believe that evidence against Oswald was either planted, forged, or tampered with.

Some assassination researchers assert that witness statements indicating a conspiracy were ignored by the Warren Commission.

Josiah Thompson stated that the Commission ignored the testimony of seven eyewitnesses who said they saw smoke in the vicinity of the grassy knoll at the time of the assassination, as well as an eighth witness who said he smelled gunpowder.

Other researchers reported that witnesses who captured the assassination via photographs or film had their cameras confiscated by police or other authorities.

Author Jim Marrs and documentary producer Nigel Turner both presented the account of Gordon Arnold who said that his film of the motorcade was taken by two policemen shortly after the assassination.

She also said that after the assassination, she was contacted at work by two men who she thought " According to Oliver, the men told her that they wanted to develop her film and return it to her within ten days, but they never did so.

Richard Buyer and others have complained that many documents pertaining to the assassination have been withheld over the years, including documents from investigations made by the Warren Commission, the House Select Committee on Assassinations, and the Church Committee.

Some documents still are not scheduled for release until Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of However, some of the material released contains redacted sections.

Tax return information, which identified employers and sources of income, has not yet been released.

The existence of several secret documents related to the assassination, as well as the long period of secrecy, suggests to some the possibility of a cover-up.

One historian noted, "There exists widespread suspicion about the government's disposition of the Kennedy assassination records stemming from the beliefs that Federal officials 1 have not made available all Government assassination records even to the Warren Commission, Church Committee, House Assassination Committee and 2 have heavily redacted the records released under FOIA in order to cover up sinister conspiracies.

Some researchers have alleged that various items of physical evidence have been tampered with, including the "single bullet" also known as the "magic bullet" by some critics of official explanations , various bullet cartridges and fragments, the presidential limousine 's windshield, the paper bag in which the Warren Commission said Oswald hid the rifle, the so-called "backyard" photos depicting Oswald holding the rifle, the Zapruder film, the photographs and radiographs obtained at Kennedy's autopsy, and the president's dead body itself.

Among the evidence against Oswald are photographs of him holding a Carcano rifle in his back yard, the weapon identified by the Warren Commission as the assassination weapon.

The House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that the Oswald photos are genuine [] and Oswald's wife Marina said that she took them.

Groden said in that four autopsy photographs showing the back of Kennedy's head were forged to hide a wound fired from a second gunman.

Robert Blakey stated that the "suggestion that the committee would participate in a cover-up is absurd" [] and that Groden was "not competent to make a judgment on whether a photograph has been altered".

The House Select Committee on Assassinations described the Zapruder film as "the best available photographic evidence of the number and timing of the shots that struck the occupants of the presidential limousine".

Kennedy assassination the evening of Saturday 23 November and into the morning of Sunday 24 November In a interview with Doug Horne, Brugioni said the Zapruder film in the National Archives today, and available to the public, has been altered from the version of the film he saw and worked with on November 23— Brugioni recalls seeing a "white cloud" of brain matter, three or four feet above Kennedy's head, and says that this "spray" lasted for more than one frame of the film.

The version of the Zapruder film available to the public depicts the fatal head shot on only one frame of the film, frame Additionally, Brugioni is certain that the set of briefing boards available to the public in the National Archives is not the set that he and his team produced on November 23—24, In his book Best Evidence , author David Lifton presented the thesis that President Kennedy's dead body had been altered between the Dallas hospital and the autopsy site at Bethesda for the purposes of creating erroneous conclusions about the number and direction of the shots.

The Warren Commission found that the shots that killed Kennedy and wounded Connally were fired from an Italian 6. Weitzman signed an affidavit the following day describing the weapon as a "7.

I was there. I saw it when it was first pulled from its hiding place, and I am not alone in describing it as a Mauser.

Dallas District Attorney Henry Wade told the press that the weapon found in the book depository was a 7.

Carl Day both might have been conspirators. Addressing "speculation and rumors", the Warren Commission identified Weitzman as "the original source of the speculation that the rifle was a Mauser" and stated that "police laboratory technicians subsequently arrived and correctly identified the [murder] weapon as a 6.

The Warren Commission determined that three bullets were fired at the presidential motorcade. One of the three bullets missed the vehicle entirely; another bullet hit President Kennedy and passed through his body before striking Governor Connally; and the third bullet was the fatal head shot to the President.

Some claim that the bullet that passed through President Kennedy's body and hit Governor Connally — dubbed by critics of the Commission as the "magic bullet" — was missing too little mass to account for the total weight of bullet fragments later found by the doctors who operated on Connally at Parkland Hospital.

Those making this claim included the governor's chief surgeon, Dr. Colonel Pierre Finck. Thompson added up the weight of the bullet fragments listed in the doctor reports and concluded that their total weight "could" have been less than the mass missing from the bullet.

With Connally's death in , forensic pathologist Dr. Cyril Wecht and the Assassination Archives and Research Center petitioned Attorney General Janet Reno to recover the remaining bullet fragments from Connally's body, contending that the fragments would disprove the Warren Commission's single-bullet , single-gunman conclusion.

The Justice Department replied that it " The Warren Commission concluded that "three shots were fired from the Texas School Book Depository in a time period ranging from approximately 4.

They point to evidence that brings into question the number of shots fired, the origin of the shots, and Oswald's ability to accurately fire three shots in such a short amount of time from such a rifle.

Based on the "consensus among the witnesses at the scene" and "in particular the three spent cartridges", the Warren Commission determined that "the preponderance of the evidence indicated that three shots were fired".

The Warren Commission, and later the House Select Committee on Assassinations, concluded that one of the shots hit President Kennedy in "the back of his neck", exited his throat, and struck Governor Connally in the back, exited the Governor's chest, shattered his right wrist, and implanted itself in his left thigh.

Mary Moorman said in a TV interview that immediately after the assassination, there were either three or four shots close together, that shots were still being fired after the fatal head shot, and that she was in the line of fire.

On the day of the assassination, Nellie Connally was seated in the presidential car next to Governor Connally, who was her husband.

In her book From Love Field: Our Final Hours , she said she believed that her husband was hit by a bullet separate from the two that hit Kennedy.

The Warren Commission concluded that all of the shots fired at President Kennedy came from the sixth-floor window at the southeast corner of the Texas School Book Depository.

The Commission based its conclusion on the "cumulative evidence of eyewitnesses, firearms and ballistic experts and medical authorities", including onsite testing, as well as analysis of films and photographs conducted by the FBI and the US Secret Service.

In , the House Select Committee on Assassinations agreed to publish a report from Warren Commission critic Robert Groden , in which he named "nearly [two] dozen suspected firing points in Dealey Plaza".

According to some assassination researchers, the grassy knoll was identified by most witnesses as the area from where shots were fired.

In , Esquire magazine credited Feldman with "advanc[ing] the theory that there were two assassins: one on the grassy knoll and one in the Book Depository".

Lee Bowers operated a railroad tower that overlooked the parking lot on the north side of the grassy knoll. He reported that he saw two men behind the grassy knoll's stockyard fence before the shooting took place.

The men did not appear to be acting together or doing anything suspicious. After the shooting, Bowers said that one of the men remained behind the fence and lost track of the second man whose clothing blended into the foliage.

When interviewed by Mark Lane, Bowers noted that he saw something that attracted his attention, either a flash of light or smoke from the knoll, allowing him to believe "something out of the ordinary" had occurred there.

Bowers told Lane that he heard three shots, the last two in quick succession. He stated that there was no way they could have been fired from the same rifle.

He viewed the presidential motorcade from the Terminal Annex Building's roof. In an interview with Mark Lane, Price said that he believed the shots came from "just behind the picket fence where it joins the [triple] underpass".

Several conspiracy theories posit that at least one shooter was located in the Dal-Tex Building , located across the street from the Texas School Book Depository.

Fletcher Prouty , the physical location of James Tague when he was injured by a bullet fragment is not consistent with the trajectory of a missed shot from the Texas School Book Depository, leading Prouty to theorize that Tague was instead wounded by a missed shot from the second floor of the Dal-Tex Building.

Some assassination researchers claim that FBI photographs of the presidential limousine show a bullet hole in its windshield above the rear-view mirror, and a crack in the windshield itself.

Whitaker said that the limousine's removed windshield had a through-and-through bullet hole from the front. He said that he was directed by one of Ford's vice presidents to use the windshield as a template to fabricate a new windshield for installation in the limousine.

Whitaker also said he was told to destroy the old one. Film and photographic evidence of the assassination have led viewers to different conclusions regarding the origin of the shots.

When the fatal shot was fired, the President's head and upper torso moved backwards — indicating, to many observers, a shot from the right front.

Sherry Gutierrez, a certified crime scene and bloodstain pattern analyst, concluded that "the [fatal] head injury to President Kennedy was the result of a single gunshot fired from the right front of the President.

In , the House Select Committee on Assassinations analyzed a Dictabelt recording of the Dallas Police Department radio dispatch transmissions from the day of the assassination to "resolve questions concerning the number, timing, and origin of the shots fired in Dealey Plaza".

McLain escorting the motorcade [] and that "the scientific acoustical evidence established a high probability that two gunmen fired at President John F.

However, the acoustical analysis that the HSCA presented as evidence for two gunmen has since been discredited. Also, in , a panel of 12 scientists appointed by the National Academy of Sciences , including Nobel laureates Norman Ramsey and Luis Alvarez , unanimously concluded that the HSCA's acoustic evidence was "seriously flawed".

They concluded that the recording was made after the President had already been shot and that the recording did not indicate any additional gunshots.

Thomas wrote that the NAS investigation was itself flawed. Ralph Linsker and several members of the original NAS team reanalyzed the recordings and reaffirmed the earlier conclusion of the NAS report that the alleged shot sounds were recorded approximately one minute after the assassination.

Some researchers have pointed to the large number of doctors and nurses at Parkland Memorial Hospital who reported that a major part of the back of the President's head was blown out.

The HSCA concluded that the most probable explanation for the discrepancy between the Parkland doctors' testimony and the Bethesda autopsy witnesses was "that the observations of the Parkland doctors [were] incorrect".

Some critics skeptical of the official " single bullet theory " have stated that the bullet's trajectory, which hit Kennedy above the right shoulder blade and passed through his neck according to the autopsy , would have had to change course to pass through Connally's rib cage and fracture his wrist.

George Burkley, locates the bullet at "about the level of the third thoracic vertebra " — which some claim was not high enough to exit his throat.

The autopsy descriptive sheet displays a diagram of the President's body with the same low placement at the third thoracic vertebra.

There is a conflicting testimony regarding the autopsy performed on Kennedy's body, particularly during the examination on his brain and whether or not the photos submitted as evidence are the same as those taken during the examination.

Supporting Horne was Dr. Gary Aguilar, who stated, "According to Horne's findings, the second brain — which showed an exit wound in the front — allegedly replaced Kennedy's real brain — which revealed much greater damage to the rear, consistent with an exit wound and thus evidence of a shot from the front.

Paul O'Connor, a laboratory technologist who assisted in the President's autopsy, claimed that the autopsy at Bethesda Naval Hospital was conducted in obedience to a high command [] [95] and that nearly all the brain matter in Kennedy's skull was already missing before the autopsy at Bethesda hospital.

The Warren Commission examined the capabilities of the Carcano rifle and ammunition, as well as Oswald's military training and post-military experience, and determined that Oswald had the ability to fire three shots within a time span of 4.

The report also states that the Army Infantry Weapons Evaluation Branch test fired Oswald's rifle 47 times and found that it was "quite accurate", comparing it to the accuracy of an M14 rifle.

Also contained in the Commission report is testimony by Marine Corps Major Eugene Anderson confirming that Oswald's military records show that he qualified as " sharpshooter " in According to official Marine Corps records, Oswald was tested in shooting in December , scoring slightly above the minimum for qualification as a sharpshooter — the intermediate category , but in May , he scored earning the lower designation of marksman.

Popkin contend that Oswald was a notoriously poor shot, that his rifle was inaccurate, and that no reconstruction of the event has ever been able to duplicate his ability to fire three shots within the time frame given by the Warren Commission.

The Warren Commission and other federal investigations ruled that Oswald either acted alone or conspired with others in the assassination, citing his actions in the years leading up to the event.

Evidence of Oswald's pro-communist and radical tendencies include his defection to Russia, the New Orleans branch of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee he had organized, and also various public and private statements made by him espousing Marxism and other leftist ideologies.

Others have argued that his behavior was in fact a carefully planned ruse as part of an effort by U. Oswald himself claimed to be innocent, denying all charges and even declaring to reporters that he was "just a patsy ".

He also insisted that the photos of him holding a rifle had been faked, an assertion contradicted by statements made by his wife, Marina, and the analysis of photographic experts such as Lyndal L.

Shaneyfelt of the FBI. Oswald's role as FBI informant was investigated by Lee Rankin and others of the Warren Commission, but their findings were inconclusive.

Several FBI employees had made statements indicating that Oswald was indeed a paid informant, but the commission was nonetheless unable to verify the veracity of those claims.

Hosty reported that his office's interactions with Oswald were limited to dealing with his complaints about being harassed by the Bureau for being a communist sympathizer.

In the weeks before the assassination, Oswald made a personal visit to the FBI's Dallas branch office with a hand-delivered letter which purportedly contained a threat of some sort but, controversially, Hosty destroyed the letter by order of J.

Gordon Shanklin, his supervisor. Some researchers suggest that Oswald served as an active agent of the Central Intelligence Agency, often pointing to how he attempted to defect to Russia but was, however, able to return without difficulty even receiving a repatriation loan from the State Department [] [] as evidence of such.

A former roommate of Oswald, James Botelho who would later become a California judge stated in an interview with Mark Lane that he believed Oswald was involved in an intelligence assignment in Russia, [] [] although Botelho did not mention this suspicion in his testimony to the Warren Commission years earlier.

Oswald's mother, Marguerite, often insisted that her son was recruited by an agency of the U. Government and sent to Russia. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence remarked that "everywhere you look with [Oswald], there're fingerprints of intelligence".

House Select Committee on Assassinations , stated that if he "had to do it over again", he would have investigated the Kennedy assassination by probing Oswald's ties to the Central Intelligence Agency.

Robert Blakey , staff director and chief counsel for the U. House Select Committee on Assassinations, supported that assessment in his conclusions as well.

Vincent Bugliosi provides a "partial list of assassins Since the mids, various allegations have been made about the identities of the men and their involvement in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy.

Howard Hunt was a participant in the assassination of Kennedy garnered much publicity from to Hunt named Vice President Lyndon Johnson as the most likely figure behind the main impetus of the conspiracy.

Dallas Police Officer J. Tippit has been named in some conspiracy theories as a renegade CIA operative sent to silence Oswald [] [] and as the " badge man " assassin on the grassy knoll.

Some critics have alleged that Tippit was associated with organized crime or right-wing politics.

According to the Warren Commission, the publication of a full-page, paid advertisement critical of Kennedy in the November 22, , Dallas Morning News , which was signed by "The American Fact-Finding Committee" and noted Bernard Weissman as its chairman, was investigated to determine whether any members of the group claiming responsibility for it were connected to Oswald or to the assassination.

Related to the advertisement, Mark Lane testified during the Warren Commission's hearings that an informant whom he refused to name told him that Weismann had met with Tippit and Ruby eight days before the assassination at Ruby's Carousel Club.

Lane later stated that he initially learned of the meeting through reporter Thayer Waldo of the Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Tippit in an apparent attempt to escape.

Tippit and seven eyewitnesses who saw the flight of the gunman with revolver in hand positively identified Lee Harvey Oswald as the man they saw fire the shots or flee from the scene, 2 the cartridge cases found near the scene of the shooting were fired from the revolver in the possession of Oswald at the time of his arrest, to the exclusion of all other weapons, 3 the revolver in Oswald's possession at the time of his arrest was purchased by and belonged to Oswald, and 4 Oswald's jacket was found along the path of flight taken by the gunman as he fled from the scene of the killing.

Some researchers have alleged that the murder of Officer Tippit was part of a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. Jim Marrs hypothesized that "the slaying of Officer J.

Tippit may have played some part in [a] scheme to have Oswald killed, perhaps to eliminate co-conspirator Tippit or simply to anger Dallas police and cause itchy trigger fingers.

This was proved by affixing to Oswald the opprobrious epithet of 'cop-killer. Some critics doubt that Tippit was killed by Oswald and assert he was shot by other conspirators.

According to Jim Marrs, Oswald's guilt in the assassination of Kennedy is placed in question by the presence of "a growing body of evidence to suggest that [he] did not kill Tippit".

Conspiracy researcher Kenn Thomas has alleged that the Warren Commission omitted testimony and evidence that two men shot Tippit and that one left the scene in a car.

William Alexander — the Dallas assistant district attorney who recommended that Oswald be charged with the Kennedy and Tippit murders — later became skeptical of the Warren Commission's version of the Tippit murder.

He stated that the Commission's conclusions on Oswald's movements "don't add up", and that "certainly [Oswald] may have had accomplices.

According to Brian McKenna 's review of Henry Hurt's book, Reasonable Doubt , Hurt reported that "Tippit may have been killed because he impregnated the wife of another man" and that Dallas police officers lied and altered evidence to set up Oswald to save Tippit's reputation.

Markham's testimony, there is ample evidence to identify Oswald as the killer of Tippit. Domingo Benavides initially said that he did not think he could identify Tippit's assailant and was never asked to view a police lineup, [] even though he was the person closest to the killing.

However, critics have questioned these lineups as they consisted of people who looked very different from Oswald. Additionally, witnesses who did not appear before the Commission identified an assailant who was not Oswald.

Acquilla Clemons said she saw two men near Tippit's car just before the shooting. She said he waved to the second man, urging him to "go on".

He described a man standing by Tippit's body who had on a long coat and said the man ran to a parked car and drove away.

Critics have questioned whether the cartridge cases recovered from the scene were the same as those that were subsequently entered into evidence.

Two of the cases were recovered by witness Domingo Benavides and turned over to police officer J. Poe told the FBI that he marked the shells with his own initials, "J.

Sergeant Gerald Hill examined one of the shells and radioed the police dispatcher, saying: "The shell at the scene indicates that the suspect is armed with an automatic.

The Warren Commission investigated Oswald's movements between the time of the assassination and the shooting of Tippit, to ascertain whether Oswald might have had an accomplice who helped him flee the Book Depository.

The Commission concluded " Some Warren Commission critics believe that Oswald did not have enough time to get from his house to the scene where Tippit was killed.

Conspiracy researcher Robert Groden believes that Tippit's murder may have occurred earlier than the time given in the Warren Report. Witness Helen Markham stated in her affidavit to the Dallas Sheriff's department that Tippit was killed at "approximately pm.

Some conspiracy theories surrounding the Kennedy assassination have focused on witnesses to the assassination who have not been identified, or who have not identified themselves, despite the media attention that the Kennedy assassination has received.

The so-called "umbrella man" was one of the closest bystanders to the president when he was first struck by a bullet.

The "umbrella man" has become the subject of conspiracy theories after footage of the assassination showed him holding an open umbrella as the Kennedy motorcade passed, despite the fact that it was not raining at the time.

One conspiracy theory, proposed by assassination researcher Robert Cutler, suggests that a dart with a paralyzing agent could have been fired from the umbrella, disabling Kennedy and making him a "sitting duck" for an assassination.

In , Louie Steven Witt came forward and identified himself as the "umbrella man". Testifying before the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations , Witt stated he brought the umbrella to heckle Kennedy and protest the appeasement policies of the president's father, Joseph Kennedy.

He added: "I think if the Guinness Book of World Records had a category for people who were at the wrong place at the wrong time, doing the wrong thing, I would be No.

An unidentified individual who is referred to by some conspiracy theorists as the "dark complected man" can be seen in several photographs, taken seconds after the assassination, sitting on the sidewalk next to the "umbrella man" on the north side of Elm Street.

Louie Steven Witt, who identified himself as the "umbrella man", said he was unable to identify the other individual, whose dark complexion has led some conspiracy theorists to speculate Cuban government involvement, or Cuban exile involvement, in the assassination of Kennedy.

The figures were first discovered by researchers Jack White and Gary Mack and are discussed in a documentary called The Men Who Killed Kennedy , where it is alleged a third figure can also be seen on the grassy knoll, possibly the eyewitness Gordon Arnold.

The "badge man" figure — so called as he appears to be wearing a uniform similar to that worn by a policeman, with a badge prominent — helped fuel conspiracy theories linking Dallas Police officers, or someone impersonating a police officer , to the assassination.

Another "figure" that has been the subject of conspiracy is the so-called "black dog man" figure who can be seen at the corner of a retaining wall in the Willis and Betzner photo of the assassination.

In an interview, Marilyn Sitzman told Josiah Thompson that she saw a young black couple who were eating lunch and drinking Cokes on a bench behind the retaining wall and, therefore, it is possible that the "black dog man" figure is actually the black woman and her child.

In The Killing of A President , Robert Groden argues that the "black dog man" figure can be seen in a pyracantha bush in frame of the Zapruder film.

The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that a head of an individual could be seen but that this individual was situated in front of, rather than behind the bushes.

Conspiracy theorists consider four or five groups, alone or in combination, to be the primary suspects in the assassination of Kennedy: the CIA , [] [] the military-industrial complex , [] [] organized crime , [] [] [] the government of Cuba , [] [] and Cuban exiles.

Bush , [] [] Sam Giancana , [] J. Soon after the assassination of President Kennedy, Oswald's activities in New Orleans , Louisiana , during the spring and summer of , came under scrutiny.

Three days after the assassination, on November 25, , New Orleans attorney Dean Andrews told the FBI that he received a telephone call from a man named Clay Bertrand , on the day of the assassination, asking him to defend Oswald.

Martin told police that Ferrie "was supposed to have been the getaway pilot in the assassination. According to several witnesses, in , both Ferrie and Banister were working for lawyer G.

Kennedy was assassinated and the day Marcello was acquitted in his deportation case — New Orleans private investigator Guy Banister and his employee, Jack Martin , were drinking together at a local bar.

On their return to Banister's office, the two men got into a heated argument. According to Martin, Banister said something to which Martin replied, "What are you going to do — kill me like you all did Kennedy?

Banister drew his. Martin, badly injured, went by ambulance to Charity Hospital. One of Oswald's leaflets had the address " Camp Street" hand-stamped on it, apparently by Oswald himself.

Banister's office was involved in anti-Castro and private investigative activities in the New Orleans area. While the committee was unable to interview Guy Banister who died in , the committee did interview his brother Ross Banister.

Ross "told the committee that his brother had mentioned seeing Oswald hand out Fair Play for Cuba literature on one occasion.

Ross theorized that Oswald had used the Camp Street address on his literature to embarrass Guy. Guy Banister's secretary, Delphine Roberts, would later tell author Anthony Summers that she saw Oswald at Banister's office, and that he filled out one of Banister's "agent" application forms.

She said, "Oswald came back a number of times. He seemed to be on familiar terms with Banister and with the office. Garrison's investigation led him to conclude that a group of right-wing extremists, including David Ferrie and Guy Banister, were involved with elements of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy.

Garrison would later claim that the motive for the assassination was anger over Kennedy's attempts to obtain a peace settlement in both Cuba and Vietnam.

On January 29, , Clay Shaw was brought to trial on these charges, and the jury found him not guilty.

Canute Michaelson to work with Dr. Alton Ochsner and Dr. Mary Sherman on a clandestine CIA project to develop a biological weapon that could be used to assassinate Fidel Castro.

According to Baker, she and Oswald were hired by Reily in the spring of as a "cover" for the operation. Addressing speculation that Oswald was a CIA agent or had some relationship with the Agency, the Warren Commission stated in that their investigation "revealed no evidence that Oswald was ever employed [by the] CIA in any capacity.

In , former U. Furthermore, he found that both agencies withheld information that might have alerted authorities in Dallas that Oswald posed a potential threat to the President.

Subsequently, Newman expressed the belief that CIA chief of counter-intelligence James Angleton was probably the key figure in the assassination.

According to Newman, only Angleton "had the access, the authority, and the diabolically ingenious mind to manage this sophisticated plot.

Watson stated the president felt that [the] CIA had had something to do with plot. One conspiracy theory suggests that a secret or shadow government including wealthy industrialists and right-wing politicians ordered the assassination of Kennedy.

In the farewell speech given by U. President Dwight D. Eisenhower before he left office on January 17, , warned the nation about the power of the military establishment and the arms industry.

The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists, and will persist. I think we would have escaped that.

According to author James W. Douglass , Kennedy was assassinated because he was turning away from the Cold War and seeking a negotiated peace with the Soviet Union.

Oliver Stone 's film, JFK , explored the possibility that Kennedy was killed by a conspiracy involving the military-industrial complex.

The House Select Committee on Assassinations reported that it investigated "alleged Secret Service complicity in the assassination" and concluded that the Secret Service was not involved.

No actions were taken by the agent in the right front seat of the presidential limousine Roy Kellerman to cover the President with his body, although it would have been consistent with Secret Service procedure for him to have done so.

The primary function of the agent was to remain at all times in close proximity to the President in the event of such emergencies.

Some argue that the lack of Secret Service protection occurred because Kennedy himself had asked that the Secret Service make itself discreet during the Dallas visit.

Palamara reports that Secret Service driver Sam Kinney told him that requests — such as removing the bubble top from the limousine in Dallas, not having agents positioned beside the limousine's rear bumper, and reducing the number of Dallas police motorcycle outriders near the limousine's rear bumper — were not made by Kennedy.

The House Select Committee on Assassinations wrote: "The committee believes, on the basis of the evidence available to it, that anti-Castro Cuban groups, as groups, were not involved in the assassination of President Kennedy, but that the available evidence does not preclude the possibility that individual members may have been involved".

Many of these exiles hoped to overthrow Castro and return to Cuba. Their hopes were dashed with the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in , and many blamed President Kennedy for the failure.

The House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that some militant Cuban exiles might have participated in Kennedy's murder.

In , the committee reported:. President Kennedy's popularity among the Cuban exiles had plunged deeply by Their bitterness is illustrated in a tape recording of a meeting of anti-Castro Cubans and right-wing Americans in the Dallas suburb of Farmer's Branch on October 1, Allegedly, Novo was affiliated with Lee Harvey Oswald and Frank Sturgis and carried weapons with them to a hotel in Dallas just prior to the assassination.

These claims, though put forth to the House Assassinations Committee by Lorenz, have never been substantiated.

Don DeLillo dramatized the Cuban theory in his novel Libra. In , the Warren Commission found no evidence linking Ruby's killing of Oswald with any broader conspiracy to assassinate President Kennedy.

Both State and Federal officials have indicated that Ruby was not affiliated with organized criminal activity. However, in , the House Select Committee on Assassinations wrote: "The committee believes, on the basis of the evidence available to it, that the national syndicate of organized crime, as a group, was not involved in the assassination of President Kennedy, but that the available evidence does not preclude the possibility that individual members may have been involved".

In a Washington Post article, Blakey added: "It is difficult to dispute the underworld pedigree of Jack Ruby, though the Warren Commission did it in His relationship with Joseph Campisi, the No.

In fact, Campisi and Ruby were close friends; they had dinner together at Campisi's restaurant, the Egyptian Lounge , on the night before the assassination.

After Ruby was jailed for killing Oswald, Campisi regularly visited him. The select committee thought Campisi's connection to Marcello was telling; he told us, for example, that every year at Christmas he sent pounds of Italian sausage to Marcello, a sort of Mafia tribute.

We also learned that he called New Orleans up to 20 times a day. Government documents have revealed that some members of the Mafia worked with the Central Intelligence Agency on assassination attempts against Cuban leader Fidel Castro.

Roselli introduced Maheu to two men he referred to as "Sam Gold" and "Joe". So the agency sought out a partner equally worried about Castro — the Mafia, which had lucrative investments in Cuban casinos.

Some conspiracy researchers have alleged a plot involving elements of the Mafia, the CIA, and the anti-Castro Cubans, including Anthony Summers, who stated: "Sometimes people sort of glaze over about the notion that the Mafia and U.

In fact, there's no contradiction there. Those three groups were all in bed together at the time and had been for several years in the fight to topple Fidel Castro.

Kennedy was murdered by a conspiracy involving disgruntled CIA agents, anti-Castro Cubans, and members of the Mafia, all of whom were extremely angry at what they viewed as Kennedy's appeasement policies toward Communist Cuba and the Soviet Union.

Carlos Marcello allegedly threatened to assassinate the President to short-circuit his younger brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, who was leading the administration's anti-Mafia crusade.

Scheim cited in particular a fold increase in the number of out-of-state telephone calls from Jack Ruby to associates of these crime bosses in the months before the assassination, and to an attempted confession by Jack Ruby while in prison.

David E. Kaiser has also suggested mob involvement in his book, The Road to Dallas. Anderson said that although he was never able to independently confirm Roselli's entire story, many of Roselli's details checked out.

Anderson said that Oswald may have played a role in the assassination, but that more than one gunman was involved. Johnny Roselli, as previously noted, had worked with the CIA on assassination attempts against Castro.

He said that he was offered the assassination contract on President Kennedy, but that he did not accept it.

However, he said that he knew the men who did accept the contract. According to David, there were three shooters.

He provided the name of one — Lucien Sarti. David said that since the other two shooters were still alive, it would break a code of conduct for him to identify them.

When asked what the shooters were wearing, David noted their modus operandi was to dress in costumes such as official uniforms.

The book Ultimate Sacrifice , by Lamar Waldron and Thom Hartmann , attempted to synthesize these theories with new evidence.

The authors argued that government officials felt obliged to help the assassins cover up the truth because the assassination conspiracy had direct ties to American government plots to assassinate Castro.

Outraged at Robert Kennedy's attack on organized crime, mob leaders had President Kennedy killed to remove Robert from power.

A government investigation of the plot was thwarted, the authors allege, because it would have revealed embarrassing evidence of American government involvement with organized crime in plots to kill Castro.

Johnson of being involved in the assassination of Kennedy. According to journalist Max Holland , the first published allegation that Johnson perpetrated the assassination of Kennedy appeared in Penn Jones, Jr.

Thomas, [] J. Nelson, [] and Madeleine Brown. The fact that JFK was seriously considering dropping Johnson from the ticket in favor of NC Governor Terry Sanford should Kennedy run in has been cited as a possible motive for Johnson's complicity in the assassination.

Johnson would be replaced as Vice President of the United States. That conversation took place on November 19, , just three days before the assassination of President Kennedy and was recorded that evening in her diary and reads as follows:.

As Mr. Kennedy sat in the rocker in my office, his head resting on its back he placed his left leg across his right knee.

He rocked slightly as he talked. In a slow pensive voice he said to me, 'You know if I am re-elected in sixty-four, I am going to spend more and more time toward making government service an honorable career.

I would like to tailor the executive and legislative branches of government so that they can keep up with the tremendous strides and progress being made in other fields.

To do this I will need as a running mate in sixty-four a man who believes as I do. Lincoln went on to write "I was fascinated by this conversation and wrote it down verbatim in my diary.

Now I asked, 'Who is your choice as a running-mate? But it will not be Lyndon. The book suggests that a smudged partial fingerprint from the sniper's nest likely belonged to Johnson's associate Malcolm "Mac" Wallace , and that Mac Wallace was, therefore, on the sixth floor of the Depository at the time of the shooting.

The book further claims that the killing of Kennedy was paid for by oil magnates, including Clint Murchison and H. McClellan states that the assassination of Kennedy allowed the oil depletion allowance to be kept at It remained unchanged during the Johnson presidency.

The History Channel assembled a committee of historians who concluded the accusations in the documentary were without merit, and The History Channel apologized to the Johnson family and agreed not to air the series in the future.

Madeleine Brown , who alleged she was the mistress of Johnson, also implicated him in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. In , Brown said that Johnson, along with H.

Hunt, had begun planning Kennedy's demise as early as Brown claimed that by its fruition in , the conspiracy involved dozens of persons, including the leadership of the FBI and the Mafia, as well as prominent politicians and journalists.

Edgar Hoover at a social gathering at Murchison's mansion the night before the assassination. Thornton , and H. Kennedys will never embarrass me again — that's no threat — that's a promise.

In the same documentary, several other Johnson associates also voiced their suspicions of Johnson.

Gary Shaw. Crenshaw was a third-year surgical resident on the trauma team at Parkland Hospital that attended to President Kennedy.

He also treated Oswald after he was shot by Jack Ruby. Crenshaw said that Johnson inquired about Oswald's status, and that Johnson demanded a "death-bed confession from the accused assassin [Oswald]".

Shires, but that Oswald was in no condition to give any statement. Buckley, Jr. In , convicted swindler Billie Sol Estes made statements to a Grand Jury in Texas indicating that he had "inside knowledge" that implicated Johnson in the death of Kennedy and others.

Historian Michael L. Kurtz wrote that there is no evidence suggesting that Johnson ordered the assassination of Kennedy. Political consultant and convicted felon Roger Stone believes that Johnson orchestrated Kennedy's assassination.

On November 29, , exactly one week after the assassination, an employee of the FBI wrote in a memo that "Mr.

George Bush of the Central Intelligence Agency" was given a briefing on the reaction to the assassination by Cuban exiles living in Miami.

Some have alleged that the "George Bush" in this memo is future president George H. Bush , who was appointed head of the CIA by president Gerald Ford in , 13 years after the assassination.

During Bush's presidential campaign in , the memo resurfaced, prompting the CIA to claim that the memo was referring to an employee named George Williams Bush.

Bush with the FBI or CIA in November does not necessarily demonstrate culpability in the assassination; furthermore, it is unclear whether Bush had any affiliation with the CIA prior to his appointment to head the agency in Bush biographer Kitty Kelly alleges that Bush was unable to remember his whereabouts on the day of Kennedy's assassination, despite the fact that this information is known.

The day of the assassination, Bush flew to Tyler, Texas , to make an appearance ahead of his upcoming campaign for the U.

Senate in , and spoke to the FBI about a local who had threatened Kennedy. The previous day, Bush had been in Dallas to speak at an oil industry meeting.

Morley has suggested the possibility that Bush's report to the FBI was a cover story, but cautioned that "speculation, however plausible, isn't evidence," and that Kelly is "not the most reliable of sources.

Supporters of the Bush theory have frequently presented photographic evidence of a man resembling Bush in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination.

However, Morley argues this evidence is weak, as no comparative measurements of the two men's facial features has been made.

Bush was already an announced Senate candidate for several months by the time of the assassination and thus had received much press attention, and no eyewitnesses have publicly recalled seeing Bush at the scene, though his opponent, incumbent Senator Ralph Yarborough , passed by in the presidential motorcade.

In September , George de Mohrenschildt , a Dallas petroleum geologist and a friend of both Bush and Lee Harvey Oswald, [] [] [] [] wrote a letter to Bush, then director of the CIA, asking for his assistance.

Bush responded to Mohrenschildt's letter, but said he would be unable to help. In its report, the Warren Commission stated that it had investigated "dozens of allegations of a conspiratorial contact between Oswald and agents of the Cuban Government" and had found no evidence of Cuban involvement in the assassination of President Kennedy.

This support included funding exiles in commando speedboat raids against Cuba. In , Clare Luce said that on the night of the assassination, she received a call from a member of a commando group she had sponsored.

According to Luce, the caller's name was "something like" Julio Fernandez and he claimed he was calling her from New Orleans.

According to Luce, Fernandez told her that Oswald had approached his group with an offer to help assassinate Castro.

Fernandez further claimed that he and his associates eventually found out that Oswald was a communist and supporter of Castro. He said that with this new-found knowledge, his group kept a close watch on Oswald until Oswald suddenly came into money and went to Mexico City and then Dallas.

Luce said that she told the caller to give his information to the FBI. Both committees investigated the incident, but were unable to uncover any evidence to corroborate the allegations.

Helms further stated that the CIA had employed members of the Mafia in this effort, and " On separate occasions, Johnson told two prominent television newsmen that he believed that JFK's assassination had been organized by Castro as retaliation for the CIA's efforts to kill Castro.

In October , Johnson told veteran newsman Howard K. Finally, in , Johnson told his former speechwriter Leo Janos of Time magazine that he "never believed that Oswald acted alone".

In , Castro was interviewed by newsman Bill Moyers. Castro denied any involvement in Kennedy's death, saying:. It would have been absolute insanity by Cuba.

It would have been a provocation. Needless to say, it would have been to run the risk that our country would have been destroyed by the United States.

Nobody who's not insane could have thought about [killing Kennedy in retaliation]. He was never forgiven for that.

The Warren Commission reported that they found no evidence that the Soviet Union was involved in the assassination of President Kennedy.

According to some conspiracy theorists, the Soviet Union, under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev , was responsible for the assassination, motivated by the humiliation of having to back down during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

According to a FBI document, Colonel Boris Ivanov — chief of the KGB Residency in New York City at the time of the assassination — stated that it was his personal opinion that the assassination had been planned by an organized group, rather than a lone individual.

The same document stated, " Much later, the high-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. He claimed that "among the leaders of Moscow's satellite intelligence services there was unanimous agreement that the KGB had been involved in the assassination of President Kennedy.

Kennedy's remains were taken to St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York for two days of public viewing before a funeral Mass was held on June 8.

His funeral train traveled from New York to Washington, D. Vice President Hubert Humphrey was also a presidential candidate; he went on to win the Democratic nomination but ultimately lost the election to Republican candidate Richard Nixon.

Much like his brother's assassination, Robert Kennedy's assassination has led to a number of conspiracy theories ; to date, no credible evidence has emerged that Sirhan was not the shooter, or that he did not act alone.

Kennedy was 22 years old in when he visited the British Mandate of Palestine and wrote dispatches for The Boston Post about the trip and its effect on him.

Opposing incumbent Republican Kenneth Keating , his first attempt at elective office scored a tight race win in an otherwise landslide Democratic Party year.

He took office as Senator from New York on January 3, The run-up to the presidential election under President Lyndon B. Johnson was a period of great social unrest.

There were riots in major cities amid Johnson's attempts to introduce anti-poverty and anti-discrimination legislation, and there was significant opposition to the ongoing Vietnam War.

The assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Humphrey did not participate in any primaries, but he did obtain the support of many Democratic Party delegates.

Following the California primary, Kennedy was in second place with delegates compared to Humphrey's and McCarthy's Four hours after the polls closed in California, Kennedy claimed victory in the state's Democratic presidential primary.

Kennedy's only security was provided by former FBI agent William Barry and two unofficial bodyguards: Olympic decathlon gold medalist Rafer Johnson and former football player Rosey Grier.

Kennedy planned to walk through the ballroom when he had finished speaking. He ended the speech by stating: "My thanks to all of you; and now it's on to Chicago, and let's win there!

Kennedy finished speaking and started to exit when William Barry stopped him and said, "No, it's been changed. We're going this way.

Uecker led Kennedy through the kitchen area, holding his right wrist, but frequently releasing it as Kennedy shook hands with people whom he encountered.

Kennedy fell to the floor, and bodyguard William Barry hit Sirhan twice in the face while others, including writer George Plimpton and football player Rosey Grier , forced him against the steam table and disarmed him, as he continued firing his gun in random directions.

After a minute, Sirhan wrestled free and grabbed the revolver again, but he had already fired all the bullets and was subdued. As Kennedy lay wounded, Juan Romero cradled his head and placed a rosary in his hand.

Another witness stated that a female in a polka-dot dress had exclaimed repeatedly, "We killed him," before running away. Video footage of the witness's testimony can be seen in the Netflix series Bobby Kennedy for President.

Kennedy's wife Ethel was three months pregnant; she stood outside the crush of people at the scene seeking help.

He turned his head and seemed to recognize her. One doctor slapped his face, calling, "Bob, Bob", while another doctor manually massaged his heart.

A gymnasium near the hospital was set up as temporary headquarters for the press and news media to receive updates on his condition. Kennedy had been shot three times.

Frank Mankiewicz left the hospital and walked to the gymnasium where the press and news media were set up for continuous updates on the situation.

I have a short announcement to read, which I will read at this time. Senator Robert Francis Kennedy died at a. With Senator Kennedy at the time of his death were his wife Ethel, his sisters Mrs.

Stephen Smith, Mrs. Patricia Lawford, his brother-in-law Mr. Stephen Smith and his sister-in-law Mrs. John F. He was 42 years old.

Thank you. Sirhan Sirhan born March 19, is a Palestinian Arab with Jordanian citizenship, born in Jerusalem, who held strongly anti- Zionist beliefs.

RFK must die. RFK must be killed. Robert F. Kennedy must be assassinated Kennedy must be assassinated before 5 June The interpretation that Sirhan was motivated by Middle Eastern politics has been criticized as an oversimplification which ignores his psychological problems.

The judge did not accept this confession and it was later withdrawn. Sirhan was convicted of the murder of Robert Kennedy on April 17, , and was sentenced six days later, to death.

The Iver Johnson. He originally bought the gun to protect his own business during the Watts riots , but never used it and kept it in its original wrapping paper and box.

Hertz's wife decided the gun was too dangerous and gave it to her daughter, Dana Westlake. Westlake did not use it and gave the gun to her next-door neighbor, George Erhard.

At the time, Erhard was looking to seek more money from the gun sale to finance some work on his car. In the interview with the Los Angeles Police Department , Munir said that his brother asked him to obtain a gun because he wanted to visit a rifle range.

Munir explained to them that rifle ranges rented guns, in which Sirhan replied "I don't want to get involved.

I don't want a signature. Munir later approached Erhard in the parking lot of Nash's store and Ernard showed him the pistol.

At this point, Munir said that he asked Ernard to bring the gun to Sirhan's house, since his brother was interested in buying it. On June 25, , a polygraph examination was administered to Munir Sirhan to determine his truthfulness regarding the gun and whether or not Ernard had ever been in the Sirhan home.

Munir Sirhan's responses to questions indicated he was being untruthful. He corrected himself and stated he had asked Erhard if he had any guns for sale and that eventually Erhard showed him the.

He examined the gun in the parking lot of Nash's Department Store. After examining the gun, he told Erhard he did not have sufficient money to purchase the gun at that time.

He asked Erhard to bring the gun to the corner of El Molino and Howard Streets in Pasadena later that evening and told him that he would have the money to purchase the gun.

Munir stated that he and Sirhan were together when Erhard came to deliver the gun. Munir Sirhan then stated that Sirhan Sirhan had been the one who bought the gun.

Munir was again informed that the polygraph test showed that he had actually purchased the gun. Munir Sirhan refused to change his story.

It is likely that Munir and Sirhan purchased the gun in such a clandestine manner because they were both aware that it was unlawful for aliens to own handguns.

Sirhan first shot the gun in March and practiced with it about a half dozen times between March and May He said he "liked guns.

Munir often heard Sirhan playing with something that made a "click, click" sound, and he believed it was the gun. In fact Munir was so worried he made Sirhan swear on their dead sister, Aida, that he would not use the gun in a "bad" way.

Sirhan had violated three California laws merely by possessing the pistol he used to kill Robert Kennedy.

Thus, if Sirhan were simply an unwitting patsy involved in a conspiracy, the conspirators must have knowingly chosen a man who had been risking the whole conspiratorial venture by possessing an illegal weapon and firing it at a police range.

Had Sirhan been caught with the illegal weapon, the purported conspiracy would have collapsed. Mike Wallace had co-anchored the primary election coverage with Cronkite and Benti, and he appeared briefly after the shooting.

Smith signed off and the closing billboard aired followed by a wide studio shot of Smith, co-anchor Bill Lawrence , and staff with the graphic "Race to the White House: California Primary" on screen accompanied by the John Philip Sousa march The Thunderer as theme music.

When the theme completed, after a moment of silence and a "please stand by" announcement, a portion of the theme was played again.

Announcer Carl Caruso then alerted viewers to "please stand by for a special report," with the wide shot and graphic still on air, as the theme played a third time.

During the long static shot, the ABC camera captured live the panic and bewilderment in the New York studio. Two and a half minutes more passed before Smith returned to air to say, "Ladies and gentlemen, we have kept the air on because we have heard an alarming report that Robert Kennedy was shot in that ballroom at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.

Meanwhile, the ABC reporters at the Ambassador crowded into the kitchen where Kennedy had been shot and the immediate aftermath was captured only by audio recording and cameras that had no live transmission capability.

NBC was also about to sign off in New York when anchor Frank McGee received a telephone call on camera, apparently informing him of the shooting.

A visibly stunned McGee spent the next few minutes filling time until he was ready to inform viewers that Kennedy had been shot.

NBC reporter Charles Quinn was one of the first to report from the scene of the shooting, telling viewers, "He's lying here on the floor.

Senator Kennedy has been shot. He's been shot. There's blood on the floor. CBS and NBC shot footage in the kitchen of the shooting's aftermath on color film, which could not be broadcast until it was developed two hours after the incident.

Mutual News was among the first to broadcast a report from the assassination location, because reporter Andrew West of KRKD , a Mutual Broadcasting System radio affiliate in Los Angeles , captured on audio tape the sounds of the immediate aftermath of the shooting but not the actual shooting itself, using his reel-to-reel tape recorder and attached microphone.

He had just recorded Kennedy's victory speech from the podium, and he followed Kennedy and his entourage to the kitchen pantry.

West turned his recorder on again seconds after Kennedy was shot and started reporting the developments. Several seconds later, West gave an on-the-spot account of the struggle with Sirhan in the hotel kitchen pantry, shouting at Rafer Johnson to "Get the gun, Rafer, get the gun!

Get his thumb! Hold him, hold him! We don't want another Oswald! Hawkins recalls West screaming "roll a tape, Kennedy's been shot, roll a tape.

Hawkins sent the complete recording to Mutual's New York headquarters over a dedicated line. Soon after, Mutual News broadcast Andrew West's dramatic report to all radio stations which were monitoring for Mutual News bulletins overnight.

As additional Mutual News stations returned to the air or resumed newscasts often at AM West's report was widely broadcast, and picked up by other stations and networks.

As with the assassination of his brother, President John F. Kennedy , Robert Kennedy's death has been the subject of widespread analysis.

Some individuals involved in the original investigation and some researchers have suggested alternative scenarios for the crime, or have argued that there are serious problems with the official case.

The location of Kennedy's wounds suggested that his assailant had stood behind him, because some witnesses assert that Sirhan faced west as Kennedy moved through the pantry facing east.

During a re-examination of the case in , the U. Supreme Court ordered expert examination of the possibility of a second gun having been used, and the conclusion of the experts was that there was little or no evidence to support this theory.

In , it was revealed that forensic expert Philip Van Praag had analyzed an audiotape of the shooting known as the Pruszynski recording in which Van Praag had discovered acoustic evidence that a second gun had been involved in the assassination.

Forensic audio specialists Wes Dooley and Paul Pegas of Audio Engineering Associates in Pasadena examined Van Praag's findings and corroborated the presence of more than eight gunshots on the tape along with over-lapping shots, all of this indicating the presence of a second shooter.

Similar corroboration came from forensic audio and ballistics expert Eddy B. District Court in Los Angeles claiming that a second gunman fired the shots that killed Kennedy.

It was the fourth and final in a series of federal briefs filed under the writ of habeas corpus by Pepper and Dusek beginning in October Following Kennedy's autopsy on June 6, his remains were taken to Manhattan, where his closed casket was viewed by thousands at St.

Patrick's Cathedral. The funeral mass was held on the morning of June 8. Kennedy's younger brother, Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy , delivered the eulogy [81] with the words:.

My brother need not be idealized, or enlarged in death beyond what he was in life; to be remembered simply as a good and decent man, who saw wrong and tried to right it, saw suffering and tried to heal it, saw war and tried to stop it.

Those of us who loved him and who take him to his rest today, pray that what he was to us and what he wished for others will someday come to pass for all the world.

As he said many times, in many parts of this nation, to those he touched and who sought to touch him: "Some men see things as they are and say why.

I dream things that never were and say why not. Immediately following the mass, Kennedy's body was transported by a slow-moving train to Washington, D.

On the way to the cemetery, the funeral procession passed through Resurrection City, a shantytown protest set up as part of the Poor People's Campaign.

Kennedy was buried near his older brother John , in Arlington National Cemetery, in the first burial to have ever taken place there at night; the second was the burial of his younger brother Ted in After Kennedy's assassination, Congress altered the Secret Service 's mandate to include protection for presidential candidates.

At the time of his death, Kennedy was substantially behind Humphrey in convention delegate support, [88] but many believe that Kennedy would have ultimately secured the nomination following his victory in the California primary.

Historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. He ultimately lost the general election to Republican Richard Nixon by the narrow popular vote margin of Kennedy's assassination was a blow to the optimism for a brighter future that his campaign brought for many Americans who lived through the turbulent s.

Jack Newfield , a reporter who had been traveling with the campaign, expressed his feelings on the effect of the assassination, closing his memoir on Kennedy with:.

Now I realized what makes our generation unique, what defines us apart from those who came before the hopeful winter of , and those who came after the murderous spring of We are the first generation that learned from experience, in our innocent twenties, that things were not really getting better, that we shall not overcome.

We felt, by the time we reached thirty, that we had already glimpsed the most compassionate leaders our nation could produce, and they had all been assassinated.

And from this time forward, things would get worse: our best political leaders were part of memory now, not hope.

The stone was at the bottom of the hill and we were all alone. Kennedy's blood-stained shirt, tie and jacket are now in the possession of the Los Angeles County District Attorney.

Controversy arose in , when Kennedy's clothing was transported to the California Homicide Investigators Association conference in Las Vegas, where they were included in a temporary public display of never-before-seen artifacts from crime scenes related to prolific serial killers and infamous murders, such as the Black Dahlia murder and the killing of Hollywood actress Sharon Tate.

The items and Kennedy's clothing were subsequently removed from the exhibit, with the LAPD apologizing to the Kennedy family.

Until , the LAPD retained the original files, reports, transcripts, fragments of the bullets that struck Kennedy and the four other bystanders in the kitchen pantry, the.

The Robert F. Kennedy Assassination Archives of the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth known as the Southeastern Massachusetts University prior to also contain a large collection of materials on the assassination, [] located at the Claire T.

Carney University Library. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kennedy lies mortally wounded on the floor immediately after the shooting.

Kneeling beside him is year-old busboy Juan Romero, who was shaking Kennedy's hand when Sirhan Sirhan fired the shots.

Main article: Sirhan Sirhan. Main article: Robert F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories. Final 30 seconds of Ted Kennedy 's eulogy of Robert F.

Kennedy at St.

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