Jrr Tolkien J.R.R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE war ein britischer Schriftsteller und Philologe. Sein Roman Der Herr der Ringe ist eines der erfolgreichsten Bücher des Jahrhunderts und gilt als grundlegendes Werk für die moderne Fantasy-Literatur. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien [dʒɒn ˈɹɒnld ɹuːl ˈtɒlkiːn], CBE (* 3. Januar in Bloemfontein, Oranje-Freistaat; † 2. September in Bournemouth. Tolkiens Welt ist eine Bezeichnung für die von J. R. R. Tolkien (–) erdachte Fantasiewelt. Mittelerde ist als Name dieser Welt nach ihrem bekanntesten. Die wichtigsten Ereignisse in Tolkiens Leben. Kindheit und Jugend. Als Sohn deutschstämmiger englischer Kolonisten wird John Ronald Reuel Tolkien am 3. J. R. R. Tolkien. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien wurde am 3. Januar in Bloemfontein (Südafrika) geboren und wuchs in England auf. Von an war er.
Hier findest du eine kurze Biografie von J. R. R. Tolkien dem Schöpfer von Mittelerde und dem Autor von Hobbit und Herr der Ringe. Am 3. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (CBE „Order of the British Empire“ ) geboren am 3. Januar in Bloemfontein, das heute zu Südafrika. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE war ein britischer Schriftsteller und Philologe. Sein Roman Der Herr der Ringe ist eines der erfolgreichsten Bücher des Jahrhunderts und gilt als grundlegendes Werk für die moderne Fantasy-Literatur. John Benjamin Tolkien ? The office season 1 episode 1 schwankte sein Gesundheitszustand, und die Gefahr, an die Front zurückgeschickt zu werden, schwebte ständig über ihm. Oktober Michael Hilary Reuel, am Klett-Cotta-Verlag J. Arthur Tolkien — Malaprop übernahm, noch einmal an seine alte Schule de n-tv. Nach weiteren Versetzungen im Frühjahrunter read more nach Penkridge in der Grafschaft Staffordshire und wieder jrr tolkien nach Hull, erkrankt er erneut und muss wiederum ins Offizierskrankenhaus eingewiesen werden. Sheridans The Rivals durch Mitglieder des T. Als sein Vormund davon erfuhr, verbot er Tolkien bis zum Erreichen seiner Https://vaxholmsvardcentral.se/hd-filme-stream-kostenlos/anna-und-die-liebe-katja.php mit einundzwanzig Jahren jeden Kontakt mit Edith. Aus der germanischen Vorstellungswelt finden sich Motive wie die Art und die Wesensmerkmale der Drachen sowie die heldenhafte Darstellung eines GrГ¶Гџe bud spencer, wie sie beispielsweise click at this page Beowulf oder im Nibelungenlied erzählt werden.
Lewis and Owen Barfield. It was also at Oxford, while grading a paper, that he spontaneously wrote a short line about "a hobbit.
He also created more than drawings to support the narrative. The books gave readers a rich literary trove populated by elves, goblins, talking trees and all manner of fantastic creatures, including characters like the wizard Gandalf and the dwarf Gimli.
Tolkien retired from professorial duties in , going on to publish an essay and poetry collection, Tree and Leaf , and the fantasy tale Smith of Wootton Major.
His wife Edith died in , and Tolkien died on September 2, , at the age of He was survived by four children. Jackson also directed a three-part Hobbit movie adaptation starring Martin Freeman, which was released from to The Art of the Hobbit was published in , celebrating the novel's 75th anniversary by presenting Tolkien's original illustrations.
Underscoring the enduring popularity of Tolkien's famed fantasy world, in November , online retail and entertainment behemoth Amazon announced that it had acquired the TV rights for the book series.
The author's life was the subject of the feature Tolkien , a biopic starring Nicholas Hoult and steeped with references to The Lord of the Rings.
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English writer A. Milne is best known for his children's stories about the adventures of Winnie-the-Pooh. Tolkien's second great-grandfather.
Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in , but John Benjamin apparently never became a British citizen. Other German relatives also joined the two brothers in London.
Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of people who evacuated East Prussia in , at the end of World War II.
Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked.
Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien , who was born on 17 February As a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think later echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult.
In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning.
When he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them.
Soon after, in , they moved to Sarehole now in Hall Green , then a Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home.
Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early.
Tolkien could read by the age of four and could write fluently soon afterwards. His mother allowed him to read many books.
Mabel Tolkien was received into the Roman Catholic Church in despite vehement protests by her Baptist family,  which stopped all financial assistance to her.
In , when J. Tolkien was 12, his mother died of acute diabetes at Fern Cottage in Rednal , which she was renting. She was then about 34 years of age, about as old as a person with diabetes mellitus type 1 could live without treatment— insulin would not be discovered until two decades later.
Nine years after her death, Tolkien wrote, "My own dear mother was a martyr indeed, and it is not to everybody that God grants so easy a way to his great gifts as he did to Hilary and myself, giving us a mother who killed herself with labour and trouble to ensure us keeping the faith.
Before her death, Mabel Tolkien had assigned the guardianship of her sons to her close friend, Fr. Francis Xavier Morgan of the Birmingham Oratory , who was assigned to bring them up as good Catholics.
In a letter to his son Michael, Tolkien recalled the influence of the man whom he always called "Father Francis": "He was an upper-class Welsh-Spaniard Tory, and seemed to some just a pottering old gossip.
He was—and he was not. I first learned charity and forgiveness from him; and in the light of it pierced even the 'liberal' darkness out of which I came, knowing more [i.
Tolkien having grown up knowing more] about ' Bloody Mary ' than the Mother of Jesus —who was never mentioned except as an object of wicked worship by the Romanists.
Philip's School. In , he won a Foundation Scholarship and returned to King Edward's. While a pupil there, Tolkien was one of the cadets from the school's Officers Training Corps who helped "line the route" for the coronation parade of King George V.
Like the other cadets from King Edward's, Tolkien was posted just outside the gates of Buckingham Palace. In Edgbaston, Tolkien lived there in the shadow of Perrott's Folly and the Victorian tower of Edgbaston Waterworks , which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works.
While in his early teens, Tolkien had his first encounter with a constructed language , Animalic, an invention of his cousins, Mary and Marjorie Incledon.
At that time, he was studying Latin and Anglo-Saxon. Their interest in Animalic soon died away, but Mary and others, including Tolkien himself, invented a new and more complex language called Nevbosh.
The next constructed language he came to work with, Naffarin, would be his own creation. Tolkien learned Esperanto some time before Around 10 June he composed "The Book of the Foxrook", a sixteen-page notebook, where the "earliest example of one of his invented alphabets" appears.
The initials stood for Tea Club and Barrovian Society, alluding to their fondness for drinking tea in Barrow's Stores near the school and, secretly, in the school library.
For Tolkien, the result of this meeting was a strong dedication to writing poetry. In , Tolkien went on a summer holiday in Switzerland, a trip that he recollects vividly in a letter,  noting that Bilbo 's journey across the Misty Mountains "including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods" is directly based on his adventures as their party of 12 hiked from Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen and on to camp in the moraines beyond Mürren.
Fifty-seven years later, Tolkien remembered his regret at leaving the view of the eternal snows of Jungfrau and Silberhorn , "the Silvertine Celebdil of my dreams".
He initially studied classics but changed his course in to English language and literature , graduating in with first-class honours.
At the age of 16, Tolkien met Edith Mary Bratt , who was three years his senior, when he and his brother Hilary moved into the boarding house where she lived in Duchess Road, Edgbaston.
According to Humphrey Carpenter,. Edith and Ronald took to frequenting Birmingham teashops, especially one which had a balcony overlooking the pavement.
There they would sit and throw sugarlumps into the hats of passers-by, moving to the next table when the sugar bowl was empty. With two people of their personalities and in their position, romance was bound to flourish.
Both were orphans in need of affection, and they found that they could give it to each other.
During the summer of , they decided that they were in love. His guardian, Father Morgan, viewed Edith as the reason for Tolkien's having "muffed" his exams and considered it "altogether unfortunate"  that his surrogate son was romantically involved with an older, Protestant woman.
He prohibited him from meeting, talking to, or even corresponding with her until he was He obeyed this prohibition to the letter,  with one notable early exception, over which Father Morgan threatened to cut short his university career if he did not stop.
I had to choose between disobeying and grieving or deceiving a guardian who had been a father to me, more than most fathers I don't regret my decision, though it was very hard on my lover.
But it was not my fault. She was completely free and under no vow to me, and I should have had no just complaint except according to the unreal romantic code if she had got married to someone else.
For very nearly three years I did not see or write to my lover. It was extremely hard, especially at first. The effects were not wholly good: I fell back into folly and slackness and misspent a good deal of my first year at college.
On the evening of his 21st birthday, Tolkien wrote to Edith, who was living with family friend C. Jessop at Cheltenham. He declared that he had never ceased to love her, and asked her to marry him.
Edith replied that she had already accepted the proposal of George Field, the brother of one of her closest schoolfriends.
But Edith said she had agreed to marry Field only because she felt "on the shelf" and had begun to doubt that Tolkien still cared for her.
She explained that, because of Tolkien's letter, everything had changed. On 8 January , Tolkien travelled by train to Cheltenham and was met on the platform by Edith.
The two took a walk into the countryside, sat under a railway viaduct, and talked. By the end of the day, Edith had agreed to accept Tolkien's proposal.
She wrote to Field and returned her engagement ring. Field was "dreadfully upset at first", and the Field family was "insulted and angry". Had he adopted a profession it would have been different.
Following their engagement, Edith reluctantly announced that she was converting to Catholicism at Tolkien's insistence.
Jessop, "like many others of his age and class Tolkien's relatives were shocked when he elected not to volunteer immediately for the British Army.
In a letter to his son Michael, Tolkien recalled: "In those days chaps joined up, or were scorned publicly. It was a nasty cleft to be in for a young man with too much imagination and little physical courage.
Instead, Tolkien, "endured the obloquy",  and entered a programme by which he delayed enlistment until completing his degree.
By the time he passed his finals in July , Tolkien recalled that the hints were "becoming outspoken from relatives".
In a letter to Edith, Tolkien complained: "Gentlemen are rare among the superiors, and even human beings rare indeed.
Tolkien took up lodgings near the training camp. On 2 June , Tolkien received a telegram summoning him to Folkestone for posting to France.
He later wrote: "Junior officers were being killed off, a dozen a minute. Parting from my wife then On 5 June , Tolkien boarded a troop transport for an overnight voyage to Calais.
On 7 June, he was informed that he had been assigned as a signals officer to the 11th Service Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers.
The battalion was part of the 74th Brigade , 25th Division. While waiting to be summoned to his unit, Tolkien sank into boredom. To pass the time, he composed a poem entitled The Lonely Isle , which was inspired by his feelings during the sea crossing to Calais.
To evade the British Army's postal censorship , he also developed a code of dots by which Edith could track his movements.
Instead, he was required to "take charge of them, discipline them, train them, and probably censor their letters If possible, he was supposed to inspire their love and loyalty.
Tolkien later lamented, "The most improper job of any man Not one in a million is fit for it, and least of all those who seek the opportunity.
Tolkien arrived at the Somme in early July In between terms behind the lines at Bouzincourt , he participated in the assaults on the Schwaben Redoubt and the Leipzig salient.
Tolkien's time in combat was a terrible stress for Edith, who feared that every knock on the door might carry news of her husband's death.
Edith could track her husband's movements on a map of the Western Front. According to the memoirs of the Reverend Mervyn S.
Evers, Anglican chaplain to the Lancashire Fusiliers:. We dossed down for the night in the hopes of getting some sleep, but it was not to be.
We no sooner lay down than hordes of lice got up. So we went round to the Medical Officer, who was also in the dugout with his equipment, and he gave us some ointment which he assured us would keep the little brutes away.
We anointed ourselves all over with the stuff and again lay down in great hopes, but it was not to be, because instead of discouraging them it seemed to act like a kind of hors d'oeuvre and the little beggars went at their feast with renewed vigour.
On 27 October , as his battalion attacked Regina Trench , Tolkien contracted trench fever , a disease carried by the lice.
He was invalided to England on 8 November Among their number were Rob Gilson of the Tea Club and Barrovian Society, who was killed on the first day of the Somme while leading his men in the assault on Beaumont Hamel.
Fellow T. Tolkien's battalion was almost completely wiped out following his return to England. Tolkien might well have been killed himself, but he had suffered from health problems and had been removed from combat multiple times.
According to John Garth:. Although Kitchener 's army enshrined old social boundaries, it also chipped away at the class divide by throwing men from all walks of life into a desperate situation together.
Tolkien wrote that the experience taught him, "a deep sympathy and feeling for the Tommy ; especially the plain soldier from the agricultural counties".
He remained profoundly grateful for the lesson. For a long time, he had been imprisoned in a tower, not of pearl, but of ivory.
In later years, Tolkien indignantly declared that those who searched his works for parallels to the Second World War were entirely mistaken:.
One has indeed personally to come under the shadow of war to feel fully its oppression; but as the years go by it seems now often forgotten that to be caught in youth by was no less hideous an experience than to be involved in and the following years.
By all but one of my close friends were dead. A weak and emaciated Tolkien spent the remainder of the war alternating between hospitals and garrison duties, being deemed medically unfit for general service.
Lost Tales represented Tolkien's attempt to create a mythology for England, a project he would abandon without ever completing.
In a letter, Tolkien described his son John as " conceived and carried during the starvation-year of and the great U-Boat campaign round about the Battle of Cambrai , when the end of the war seemed as far off as it does now".
Tolkien was promoted to the temporary rank of lieutenant on 6 January After his wife's death in , Tolkien remembered,.
I never called Edith Luthien —but she was the source of the story that in time became the chief part of the Silmarillion.
It was first conceived in a small woodland glade filled with hemlocks  at Roos in Yorkshire where I was for a brief time in command of an outpost of the Humber Garrison in , and she was able to live with me for a while.
In those days her hair was raven, her skin clear, her eyes brighter than you have seen them, and she could sing—and dance.
On 16 July Tolkien was officially demobilized, at Fovant, on Salisbury Plain, with a temporary disability pension.
On 3 November , Tolkien was demobilized and left the army, retaining his rank of lieutenant. Gordon ; both became academic standard works for several decades.
In mid, he began to tutor undergraduates privately, most importantly those of Lady Margaret Hall and St Hugh's College , given that the women's colleges were in great need of good teachers in their early years, and Tolkien as a married professor then still not common was considered suitable, as a bachelor don would not have been.
He also published a philological essay in on the name " Nodens ", following Sir Mortimer Wheeler 's unearthing of a Roman Asclepeion at Lydney Park , Gloucestershire, in In the s, Tolkien undertook a translation of Beowulf , which he finished in , but did not publish.
It was finally edited by his son and published in , more than 40 years after Tolkien's death and almost 90 years after its completion.
Ten years after finishing his translation, Tolkien gave a highly acclaimed lecture on the work, " Beowulf : The Monsters and the Critics ", which had a lasting influence on Beowulf research.
Nicholson said that the article Tolkien wrote about Beowulf is "widely recognized as a turning point in Beowulfian criticism", noting that Tolkien established the primacy of the poetic nature of the work as opposed to its purely linguistic elements.
According to Humphrey Carpenter , Tolkien had an ingenious means of beginning his series of lectures on Beowulf :. Decades later, W.
Auden wrote to his former professor,. I don't think that I have ever told you what an unforgettable experience it was for me as an undergraduate, hearing you recite Beowulf.
The voice was the voice of Gandalf. In the run-up to the Second World War , Tolkien was earmarked as a codebreaker.
In , Tolkien moved to Merton College, Oxford , becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature ,  in which post he remained until his retirement in He served as an external examiner for University College, Dublin , for many years.
Tolkien completed The Lord of the Rings in , close to a decade after the first sketches. Tolkien also translated the Book of Jonah for the Jerusalem Bible , which was published in Tolkien was very devoted to his children and sent them illustrated letters from Father Christmas when they were young.
Each year more characters were added, such as the North Polar Bear Father Christmas's helper , the Snow Man his gardener , Ilbereth the elf his secretary , and various other, minor characters.
The major characters would relate tales of Father Christmas's battles against goblins who rode on bats and the various pranks committed by the North Polar Bear.
During his life in retirement, from up to his death in , Tolkien received steadily increasing public attention and literary fame.
In , his friend C. Lewis even nominated him for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Fan attention became so intense that Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory,  and eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth , which was then a seaside resort patronized by the British upper middle class.
Tolkien's status as a best-selling author gave them easy entry into polite society, but Tolkien deeply missed the company of his fellow Inklings.
Edith, however, was overjoyed to step into the role of a society hostess, which had been the reason that Tolkien selected Bournemouth in the first place.
According to Humphrey Carpenter :. Those friends who knew Ronald and Edith Tolkien over the years never doubted that there was deep affection between them.
It was visible in the small things, the almost absurd degree in which each worried about the other's health, and the care in which they chose and wrapped each other's birthday presents; and in the large matters, the way in which Ronald willingly abandoned such a large part of his life in retirement to give Edith the last years in Bournemouth that he felt she deserved, and the degree in which she showed pride in his fame as an author.
A principal source of happiness to them was their shared love of their family. This bound them together until the end of their lives, and it was perhaps the strongest force in the marriage.
They delighted to discuss and mull over every detail of the lives of their children, and later their grandchildren.
Edith Tolkien died on 29 November , at the age of According to Simon Tolkien :. My grandmother died two years before my grandfather and he came back to live in Oxford.
Merton College gave him rooms just off the High Street. I went there frequently and he'd take me to lunch in the Eastgate Hotel. Those lunches were rather wonderful for a year-old boy spending time with his grandfather, but sometimes he seemed sad.
There was one visit when he told me how much he missed my grandmother. It must have been very strange for him being alone after they had been married for more than 50 years.
When Tolkien died 21 months later on 2 September from a bleeding ulcer and chest infection,  at the age of 81,  he was buried in the same grave, with Beren added to his name.
The engravings read:. Wolvercote Cemetery , Oxford. Tolkien was a devout Roman Catholic , and in his religious and political views he was mostly a traditionalist moderate, with libertarian , distributist , and monarchist leanings, in the sense of favouring established conventions and orthodoxies over innovation and modernization, whilst castigating government bureaucracy; in he wrote, "My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy philosophically understood , meaning abolition of control not whiskered men with bombs —or to 'unconstitutional' Monarchy.
Although he did not often write or speak about it, Tolkien advocated the dismantling of the British Empire and even of the United Kingdom.
In a letter to a former student, the Belgian linguist Simonne d'Ardenne, he wrote, "The political situation is dreadful I have the greatest sympathy with Belgium—which is about the right size of any country!
I wish my own were bounded still by the seas of the Tweed and the walls of Wales Tolkien had an intense hatred for the side effects of industrialization, which he considered to be devouring the English countryside and simpler life.
For most of his adult life, he was disdainful of cars, preferring to ride a bicycle. Many commentators  have remarked on a number of potential parallels between the Middle-earth saga and events in Tolkien's lifetime.
Tolkien ardently rejected this opinion in the foreword to the second edition of the novel, stating he preferred applicability to allegory.
He concludes that Christianity itself follows this pattern of inner consistency and external truth. His belief in the fundamental truths of Christianity leads commentators to find Christian themes in The Lord of the Rings.
Tolkien objected strongly to C. Lewis's use of religious references in his stories, which were often overtly allegorical.
His love of myths and his devout faith came together in his assertion that he believed mythology to be the divine echo of "the Truth".
Tolkien's devout Roman Catholic faith was a significant factor in the conversion of C. Lewis from atheism to Christianity, although Tolkien was dismayed that Lewis chose to join the Church of England.
He once wrote in a letter to Rayner Unwin 's daughter Camilla, who wished to know what the purpose of life was, that "[i]t may be said that the chief purpose of life, for any one of us, is to increase according to our capacity our knowledge of God by all the means we have, and to be moved by it to praise and thanks.
According to his grandson Simon Tolkien , Tolkien in the last years of his life was disappointed by some of the liturgical reforms and changes implemented after the Second Vatican Council :.
I vividly remember going to church with him in Bournemouth. He was a devout Roman Catholic and it was soon after the Church had changed the liturgy from Latin to English.
My grandfather obviously didn't agree with this and made all the responses very loudly in Latin while the rest of the congregation answered in English.
I found the whole experience quite excruciating, but my grandfather was oblivious. He simply had to do what he believed to be right.
Tolkien voiced support for the Nationalists eventually led by Franco during the Spanish Civil War upon hearing that communist Republicans were destroying churches and killing priests and nuns.
Tolkien was contemptuous of Joseph Stalin. Tolkien said, "I utterly repudiate any such reading , which angers me. The situation was conceived long before the Russian revolution.
Such allegory is entirely foreign to my thought. Tolkien vocally opposed Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party before the Second World War , and was known to especially despise Nazi racist and anti-semitic ideology.
To Tolkien's outrage, he was asked beforehand whether he was of Aryan origin. In a letter to his British publisher Stanley Unwin , he condemned Nazi "race-doctrine" as "wholly pernicious and unscientific".
He added that he had many Jewish friends and was considering "letting a German translation go hang". The more tactful letter was sent and was lost during the later bombing of Germany.
In the unsent letter, Tolkien makes the point that " Aryan " is a linguistic term, denoting speakers of Indo-Iranian languages.
He continued,. But if I am to understand that you are enquiring whether I am of Jewish origin, I can only reply that I regret that I appear to have no ancestors of that gifted people.
My great-great-grandfather came to England in the 18th century from Germany: the main part of my descent is therefore purely English, and I am an English subject—which should be sufficient.
I have been accustomed, nonetheless, to regard my German name with pride, and continued to do so throughout the period of the late regrettable war, in which I served in the English army.
I cannot, however, forbear to comment that if impertinent and irrelevant inquiries of this sort are to become the rule in matters of literature, then the time is not far distant when a German name will no longer be a source of pride.
In a letter to his son Michael, he expressed his resentment at the distortion of Germanic history in "Nordicism":.
You have to understand the good in things, to detect the real evil. But no one ever calls on me to "broadcast" or do a postscript.
Yet I suppose I know better than most what is the truth about this "Nordic" nonsense. Anyway, I have in this war a burning private grudge Ruining, perverting, misapplying, and making for ever accursed, that noble northern spirit, a supreme contribution to Europe, which I have ever loved, and tried to present in its true light.
Nowhere, incidentally, was it nobler than in England, nor more early sanctified and Christianized.
In , he objected to a description of Middle-earth as " Nordic ", a term he said he disliked because of its association with racialist theories.
Tolkien criticized Allied use of total-war tactics against civilians of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. In a letter to his son Christopher, he wrote:.
We were supposed to have reached a stage of civilization in which it might still be necessary to execute a criminal, but not to gloat, or to hang his wife and child by him while the orc-crowd hooted.
The destruction of Germany, be it times merited, is one of the most appalling world-catastrophes.
Well, well,—you and I can do nothing about it. And that [should] be a measure of the amount of guilt that can justly be assumed to attach to any member of a country who is not a member of its actual Government.
Well the first War of the Machines seems to be drawing to its final inconclusive chapter—leaving, alas, everyone the poorer, many bereaved or maimed and millions dead, and only one thing triumphant: the Machines.
In an earlier, letter to Christopher, he wrote:. There was a solemn article in the local paper seriously advocating systematic exterminating of the entire German nation as the only proper course after military victory: because, if you please, they are rattlesnakes, and don't know the difference between good and evil!
What of the writer? The Germans have just as much right to declare the Poles and Jews exterminable vermin, subhuman, as we have to select the Germans: in other words, no right, whatever they have done.
Tolkien was horrified by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , referring to the scientists of the Manhattan Project as "these lunatic physicists" and " Babel -builders".
During most of his own life conservationism was not yet on the political agenda, and Tolkien himself did not directly express conservationist views—except in some private letters, in which he tells about his fondness for forests and sadness at tree-felling.
In later years, a number of authors of biographies or literary analyses of Tolkien conclude that during his writing of The Lord of the Rings , Tolkien gained increased interest in the value of wild and untamed nature, and in protecting what wild nature was left in the industrialized world.
Tolkien devised several themes that were reused in successive drafts of his legendarium , beginning with The Book of Lost Tales , written while recuperating from illnesses contracted during The Battle of the Somme.
Tolkien wished to imitate Morris's prose and poetry romances,  from which he took hints for the names of features such as the Dead Marshes in The Lord of the Rings  and Mirkwood ,  along with some general aspects of approach.
Edward Wyke-Smith 's The Marvellous Land of Snergs , with its "table-high" title characters, strongly influenced the incidents, themes, and depiction of Bilbo's race in The Hobbit.
Tolkien also cited H. Rider Haggard 's novel She in a telephone interview: "I suppose as a boy She interested me as much as anything—like the Greek shard of Amyntas [Amenartas], which was the kind of machine by which everything got moving.
Critics have compared this device to the Testament of Isildur in The Lord of the Rings  and to Tolkien's efforts to produce as an illustration a realistic page from the Book of Mazarbul.
Tolkien wrote of being impressed as a boy by S. Crockett 's historical novel The Black Douglas and of basing the battle with the wargs in The Fellowship of the Ring partly on an incident in it.
Tolkien was inspired by early Germanic , especially Old English , literature, poetry , and mythology , which were his chosen and much-loved areas of expertise.
These sources of inspiration included Old English literature such as Beowulf , Norse sagas such as the Volsunga saga and the Hervarar saga ,  the Poetic Edda , the Prose Edda , the Nibelungenlied , and numerous other culturally related works.
Tolkien also acknowledged several non-Germanic influences or sources for some of his stories and ideas.
He described its character of Väinämöinen as one of his influences for Gandalf the Grey. Anderson , John Garth, and many other prominent Tolkien scholars believe that Tolkien also drew influence from a variety of Celtic Irish , Scottish and Welsh history and legends.
Needless to say they are not Celtic! Neither are the tales. I do know Celtic things many in their original languages Irish and Welsh , and feel for them a certain distaste: largely for their fundamental unreason.
They have bright colour, but are like a broken stained glass window reassembled without design. They are in fact "mad" as your reader says—but I don't believe I am.
Fimi pointed out that despite his dismissive remarks about "Celtic things" in that Tolkien was fluent in medieval Welsh though not modern Welsh and declared when delivering the first O'Donnell lectures at Oxford in about the influences of Celtic languages on the English language that "Welsh is beautiful".
One of Tolkien's purposes when writing his Middle-earth books was to create what his biographer Humphrey Carpenter called a "mythology for England" with Carpenter citing in support Tolkien's letter to Milton Waldman complaining of the "poverty of my country: it had no stories of its own bound up with its tongue and soil " unlike the Celtic nations of Scotland, Ireland and Wales, which all had their own well developed mythologies.
Chesterton engaging in a series of polemical essays with Yeats over the question of the superiority of Irish vs.
English fairy tales. Catholic theology and imagery played a part in fashioning Tolkien's creative imagination, suffused as it was by his deeply religious spirit.
The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision.
That is why I have not put in, or have cut out, practically all references to anything like "religion", to cults or practices, in the imaginary world.
For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism. Specifically, Paul H. Kocher argues that Tolkien describes evil in the orthodox Christian way as the absence of good.
He cites many examples in The Lord of the Rings , such as Sauron's "Lidless Eye": "the black slit of its pupil opened on a pit, a window into nothing".
Kocher sees Tolkien's source as Thomas Aquinas , "whom it is reasonable to suppose that Tolkien, as a medievalist and a Catholic, knows well".
Shippey contends that this Christian view of evil is most clearly stated by Boethius: "evil is nothing". He says Tolkien used the corollary that evil cannot create as the basis of Frodo 's remark, "the Shadow Stratford Caldecott also interpreted the Ring in theological terms: "The Ring of Power exemplifies the dark magic of the corrupted will, the assertion of self in disobedience to God.
It appears to give freedom, but its true function is to enslave the wearer to the Fallen Angel. It corrodes the human will of the wearer, rendering him increasingly 'thin' and unreal; indeed, its gift of invisibility symbolizes this ability to destroy all natural human relationships and identity.
You could say the Ring is sin itself: tempting and seemingly harmless to begin with, increasingly hard to give up and corrupting in the long run.
As well as his fiction, Tolkien was also a leading author of academic literary criticism. His seminal lecture, later published as an article, revolutionized the treatment of the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf by literary critics.
The essay remains highly influential in the study of Old English literature to this day. Beowulf is one of the most significant influences upon Tolkien's later fiction, with major details of both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings being adapted from the poem.
The piece reveals many of the aspects of Beowulf which Tolkien found most inspiring, most prominently the role of monsters in literature, particularly that of the dragon which appears in the final third of the poem:.
As for the poem, one dragon, however hot, does not make a summer, or a host; and a man might well exchange for one good dragon what he would not sell for a wilderness.
And dragons, real dragons, essential both to the machinery and the ideas of a poem or tale, are actually rare. This essay discusses the fairy-story as a literary form.
Tolkien focuses on Andrew Lang 's work as a folklorist and collector of fairy tales. He disagreed with Lang's broad inclusion, in his Fairy Book collections, of traveller's tales, beast fables, and other types of stories.
Tolkien held a narrower perspective, viewing fairy stories as those that took place in Faerie , an enchanted realm, with or without fairies as characters.
He viewed them as the natural development of the interaction of human imagination and human language. In addition to his mythopoeic compositions, Tolkien enjoyed inventing fantasy stories to entertain his children.
Other works included Mr. The request for a sequel prompted Tolkien to begin what would become his most famous work: the epic novel The Lord of the Rings originally published in three volumes — Tolkien spent more than ten years writing the primary narrative and appendices for The Lord of the Rings , during which time he received the constant support of the Inklings , in particular his closest friend C.
Lewis , the author of The Chronicles of Narnia. Tolkien at first intended The Lord of the Rings to be a children's tale in the style of The Hobbit , but it quickly grew darker and more serious in the writing.
Tolkien's influence weighs heavily on the fantasy genre that grew up after the success of The Lord of the Rings. The Lord of the Rings became immensely popular in the s and has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the 20th century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.
His popularity is not limited to the English-speaking world: in a poll inspired by the UK's "Big Read" survey, about , Germans found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite work of literature.
Moreover, printing costs were very high in s Britain, requiring The Lord of the Rings to be published in three volumes.
Tolkien had appointed his son Christopher to be his literary executor , and he with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay , later a well-known fantasy author in his own right organized some of this material into a single coherent volume, published as The Silmarillion in It received the Locus Award for Best Fantasy novel in In subsequent years — , he published a large amount of the remaining unpublished materials, together with notes and extensive commentary, in a series of twelve volumes called The History of Middle-earth.
They contain unfinished, abandoned, alternative, and outright contradictory accounts, since they were always a work in progress for Tolkien and he only rarely settled on a definitive version for any of the stories.
There is not complete consistency between The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit , the two most closely related works, because Tolkien never fully integrated all their traditions into each other.
He commented in , while editing The Hobbit for a third edition, that he would have preferred to rewrite the book completely because of the style of its prose.
It is a narrative poem composed in alliterative verse and is modelled after the Old Norse poetry of the Elder Edda.
Christopher Tolkien supplied copious notes and commentary upon his father's work. According to Christopher Tolkien, it is no longer possible to trace the exact date of the work's composition.
On the basis of circumstantial evidence, he suggests that it dates from the s. In his foreword he wrote, "He scarcely ever to my knowledge referred to them.
For my part, I cannot recall any conversation with him on the subject until very near the end of his life, when he spoke of them to me, and tried unsuccessfully to find them.
Auden , Tolkien wrote,. Thank you for your wonderful effort in translating and reorganising The Song of the Sibyl. The Fall of Arthur , published on 23 May , is a long narrative poem composed by Tolkien in the earlys.
It is alliterative , extending to almost 1, lines imitating the Old English Beowulf metre in Modern English.
Though inspired by high medieval Arthurian fiction, the historical setting of the poem is during the Post-Roman Migration Period , both in form using Germanic verse and in content, showing Arthur as a British warlord fighting the Saxon invasion , while it avoids the high medieval aspects of the Arthurian cycle such as the Grail, and the courtly setting ; the poem begins with a British "counter-invasion" to the Saxon lands Arthur eastward in arms purposed.
Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary , published on 22 May , is a prose translation of the early medieval epic poem Beowulf from Old English to modern English.
Translated by Tolkien from to , it was edited by his son Christopher. The translation is followed by over pages of commentary on the poem; this commentary was the basis of Tolkien's acclaimed lecture " Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics ".
The former is a fantasy piece on Beowulf's biographical background, while the latter is a poem on the Beowulf theme.
The Story of Kullervo , first published in Tolkien Studies in and reissued with additional material in , is a retelling of a 19th-century Finnish poem.
It was written in while Tolkien was studying at Oxford. The story is one of three contained within The Silmarillion which Tolkien believed to warrant their own long-form narratives.
The Fall of Gondolin is a tale of a beautiful, mysterious city destroyed by dark forces, which Tolkien called "the first real story" of Middle-earth , was published on 30 August  as a standalone book, edited by Christopher Tolkien and illustrated by Alan Lee.
Raynor, S. Lewis but had never completed, was discovered at the Bodleian Library. Both Tolkien's academic career and his literary production are inseparable from his love of language and philology.
He specialized in English philology at university and in graduated with Old Norse as his special subject. He worked on the Oxford English Dictionary from and is credited with having worked on a number of words starting with the letter W, including walrus , over which he struggled mightily.
Privately, Tolkien was attracted to "things of racial and linguistic significance", and in his lecture English and Welsh , which is crucial to his understanding of race and language, he entertained notions of "inherent linguistic predilections", which he termed the "native language" as opposed to the "cradle-tongue" which a person first learns to speak.
Auden in , "I am a West-midlander by blood and took to early west-midland Middle English as a known tongue as soon as I set eyes on it.
Parallel to Tolkien's professional work as a philologist, and sometimes overshadowing this work, to the effect that his academic output remained rather thin, was his affection for constructing languages.
The most developed of these are Quenya and Sindarin , the etymological connection between which formed the core of much of Tolkien's legendarium.
Language and grammar for Tolkien was a matter of esthetics and euphony , and Quenya in particular was designed from "phonaesthetic" considerations; it was intended as an "Elvenlatin", and was phonologically based on Latin, with ingredients from Finnish, Welsh, English, and Greek.
The popularity of Tolkien's books has had a small but lasting effect on the use of language in fantasy literature in particular, and even on mainstream dictionaries, which today commonly accept Tolkien's idiosyncratic spellings dwarves and dwarvish alongside dwarfs and dwarfish , which had been little used since the midth century and earlier.
In fact, according to Tolkien, had the Old English plural survived, it would have been dwarrows or dwerrows. He also coined the term eucatastrophe , though it remains mainly used in connection with his own work.
Tolkien was an accomplished artist, who learned to paint and draw as a child and continued to do so all his life. He also produced pictures to accompany the stories told to his own children, including those later published in Mr Bliss and Roverandom , and sent them elaborately illustrated letters purporting to come from Father Christmas.
Although he regarded himself as an amateur, the publisher used the author's own cover art, maps, and full-page illustrations for the early editions of The Hobbit.
Much of his artwork was collected and published in as a book: J. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator. The book discusses Tolkien's paintings, drawings, and sketches, and reproduces approximately examples of his work.
In a letter to publisher Milton Waldman — , Tolkien wrote about his intentions to create a "body of more or less connected legend", of which "[t]he cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama".
She sent them to Tolkien, who was struck by the similarity they bore in style to his own drawings.
However, Tolkien was not fond of all the artistic representation of his works that were produced in his lifetime, and was sometimes harshly disapproving.
In , he rejected suggestions for illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of The Hobbit as "too Disnified Bilbo with a dribbling nose, and Gandalf as a figure of vulgar fun rather than the Odinic wanderer that I think of".
Tolkien was sceptical of the emerging Tolkien fandom in the United States, and in he returned proposals for the dust jackets of the American edition of The Lord of the Rings :.
Thank you for sending me the projected "blurbs", which I return. The Americans are not as a rule at all amenable to criticism or correction; but I think their effort is so poor that I feel constrained to make some effort to improve it.
He had dismissed dramatic representations of fantasy in his essay " On Fairy-Stories ", first presented in In human art Fantasy is a thing best left to words, to true literature.
Drama is naturally hostile to Fantasy. Fantasy, even of the simplest kind, hardly ever succeeds in Drama, when that is presented as it should be, visibly and audibly acted.John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (CBE „Order of the British Empire“ ) geboren am 3. Januar in Bloemfontein, das heute zu Südafrika. Wer ist eigentlich der Mann hinter den Büchern? Diese Seite erzählt die Lebensgeschichte J.R.R. Tolkiens, über das Schreiben seiner Fantasybücher hinaus. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE (* 3. Januar in Bloemfontein, Oranje-Freistaat (heute. Hier findest du eine kurze Biografie von J. R. R. Tolkien dem Schöpfer von Mittelerde und dem Autor von Hobbit und Herr der Ringe. Am 3. J.R.R. Tolkien. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, geboren in Bloemfontein/Südafrika, gestorben in Bournemoth, Großbritannien, lebte ab in England.